Crypto Assets and Insolvency


Status as on- 03/03/2023

Crypto assets are a relatively new type of asset that has become increasingly popular in recent years. Unlike traditional assets such as stocks or bonds, crypto assets are digital assets that exist on a decentralized network called a blockchain. As such, the legal treatment of crypto assets in the context of insolvency can be complex and challenging.

One key issue is whether crypto assets are considered property under insolvency law.

In some jurisdictions, such as the United States and the United Kingdom, crypto assets are generally treated as property. This means that they can be subject to seizure and distribution to creditors in the event of insolvency.

However, in other jurisdictions, the status of crypto assets is less clear. For example, in Japan, crypto assets are not recognized as property under the country’s Civil Rehabilitation Act. This has led to challenges in cases of insolvency involving crypto assets, as there is no clear legal framework for dealing with them.

Another issue is the valuation of crypto assets

Unlike traditional assets, which can be valued based on market prices or other objective criteria, the value of crypto assets can be highly volatile and subjective. This can make it difficult to determine the value of crypto assets in the context of insolvency.

There are also challenges related to the security and custody of crypto assets in the context of insolvency. Because crypto assets are digital, they can be vulnerable to hacking and other types of cyberattacks. As such, it is important for insolvency practitioners to have robust security protocols in place to protect crypto assets from theft or loss.

Overall, the treatment of crypto assets in the context of insolvency is an evolving area of law that will likely continue to develop as the use of crypto assets becomes more widespread. Insolvency practitioners and other stakeholders will need to stay abreast of legal developments and best practices in order to effectively manage and protect crypto assets in the event of insolvency.

Exchange insolvency

If a cryptocurrency exchange goes bankrupt or becomes insolvent, customers who have deposited funds or crypto assets with the business may lose their money. This can happen if the exchange is hacked or if it mismanages its finances.

Insolvency of a crypto project

If a cryptocurrency project fails or goes bankrupt, the value of the associated tokens or coins may decrease significantly, leaving investors with losses. This can happen if the project does not deliver on its promises or if it fails to gain widespread adoption

In the context of India

India’s insolvency laws do not explicitly address cryptocurrencies, but they are expected to be treated as property assets in the event of insolvency. This means that creditors may be able to recover debts owed to them through the sale of any cryptocurrency assets held by the debtor.

In 2019, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) banned financial institutions from dealing with cryptocurrency businesses, causing significant disruption to the industry. However, in March 2020, the Supreme Court of India overturned the ban, allowing cryptocurrency exchanges to operate again.

Overall, the legal status of cryptocurrencies in India is still unclear, and the lack of clear regulation creates uncertainty for investors and businesses operating in the industry. The government has expressed an interest in developing a regulatory framework for crypto but progress is slow.


Disclaimer: The above article is based on the personal interpretation of the related orders and laws. The readers are expected to take expert opinions before relying upon the article. For more information, please contact us at

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *