Same Sex Marriages in India: A complete overview




India, like many countries worldwide, has experienced notable advancements in recognizing Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, Queer, and Questioning i.e. LGBTQ+ rights in recent times. A contentious topic under consideration is the legalization of same-sex marriages.

This article offers a comprehensive overview of the ongoing debates and arguments presented in the Indian Supreme Court regarding same-sex marriages. It delves into the historical context, legal battles, public sentiments, and the strongest arguments favoring marriage equality.

Historical Context of LGBTQ+ Rights in India

The journey towards LGBTQ+ rights in India has been filled with challenges and triumphs. In the past, homosexual relationships were deemed criminal under Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code, a legacy of British colonial rule. However, in a historic 2018 ruling, the Supreme Court of India struck down Section 377, thereby decriminalizing consensual same-sex relationships.


Legal Battles for Same-Sex Marriage

In the wake of the decriminalization of homosexual relationships, LGBTQ+ rights activists and supporters intensified their efforts to seek legal recognition of same-sex marriages. Numerous petitions were filed in different High Courts across India, with several couples seeking the right to marry their same-sex partners. Eventually, these cases made their way to the Supreme Court of India, where the battle for marriage equality is still ongoing.


Public Sentiments and Societal Challenges

Although there is a growing acceptance of LGBTQ+ rights in India, a significant segment of society remains opposed to same-sex marriages. Cultural and religious factors significantly influence these views, making it difficult for progressive legislation to gain widespread support. Public sentiment towards same-sex marriages is an influential factor that the Supreme Court takes into account during deliberations.


Arguments in Favor of Same-Sex Marriages in the Supreme Court

-Constitutional Rights and Equality

One of the primary arguments in favor of same-sex marriages is based on the principles of equality and non-discrimination enshrined in the Indian Constitution. LGBTQ+ advocates assert that denying same-sex couples the right to marry violates their fundamental rights and denies them equal protection under the law.

-Psychological and Emotional Well-being

Supporters of marriage equality emphasize the significance of formal recognition through marriage for the psychological and emotional well-being of LGBTQ+ individuals. Legalizing same-sex marriages would provide them with a sense of validation, stability, and security within their relationships.

-Social Acceptance and Inclusivity

Legalizing same-sex marriages would foster social acceptance and inclusivity, reducing stigma and discrimination against LGBTQ+ individuals. It would create a more equitable society where all citizens are treated with dignity and respect, regardless of their sexual orientation.

-Family Rights and Responsibilities

Recognition of same-sex marriages would grant LGBTQ+ couples access to various legal rights and responsibilities, including inheritance, property rights, adoption, and custody. This would ensure that they have the same protections and benefits as heterosexual couples.

-Economic Benefits

Marriage equality could also lead to economic benefits for the country. It would enable same-sex couples to participate fully in the economy, benefiting various industries such as wedding services, tourism, and real estate.

Counterarguments and Challenges

Despite the compelling arguments in favor of same-sex marriages, there are opposing viewpoints that the Supreme Court must consider. Critics often cite religious beliefs and traditional values as reasons for opposing marriage equality. These counterarguments present a complex challenge for the court in striking a balance between upholding fundamental rights and respecting cultural sensitivities.

International Perspectives on Same-Sex Marriages

The Supreme Court has also examined how other countries have dealt with the issue of same-sex marriages. It has considered judgments from different jurisdictions to gain insights into the legal, social, and economic implications of recognizing such marriages.


The fight for marriage equality for LGBTQ+ couples in India continues to be a significant milestone in the nation’s quest for equal rights and social progress. The Supreme Court, as the guardian of the Constitution, plays a pivotal role in determining the outcome of this crucial issue. By considering the best arguments presented by both sides, the court has the opportunity to make a landmark decision that will shape the lives of countless individuals and contribute to a more inclusive and equitable society.

The future outlook for LGBTQ+ rights in India is seen with hope, as there have been positive developments, including the inclusion of gender identity in the country’s census and job quotas for transgender individuals in some states. The possibility of legalizing same-sex marriage is also being considered, influenced by global trends and neighboring countries’ recent actions.


Nonetheless, the article points out that resistance to LGBTQ+ rights persists, particularly from conservative religious groups. This opposition could lead to legal and political challenges in the fight for greater recognition and protection of LGBTQ+ rights in India.

Despite the challenges, the text encourages LGBTQ+ activists and supporters to continue advocating for their rights, raising awareness, and promoting acceptance and understanding within society.

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